Sogdiana or former Central Asian countries
Some dates to locate important periods of the region:
8th c. BC
Foundation of Samarkand
6th c. BC
Achaemenid EMPIRE – Persian Dynasty founded by :
– Cyrus II the great: 556-530 BC.
– DARIUS I: 522-486 BC.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT releases the Greek cities of Asia Minor from the yoke Achaemenids. He called Samarkand “Marakanda”, settled in the city in 328. It definitely leaves Sogdiana in 327 and leaves a Greek influence to the 7th S.
Seleucid Empire – Hellenistic Dynasty. Founder, Seleucus 1st (312-305 BC.). The Empire born of Alexander’s conquests, extending from the Indus to the Mediterranean. He finally reduced to Syria, annexed to Rome by Pompey in 64 BC
Exploding the Seleucid Empire
Appearance of YUE TCHE Central Asia
1st to 3rd BC.
Kushan Empire: Art of Gandhara (province of Ancient India, currently District Peshawar, Pakistan)
Sassanid Empire: Khorasan Mesopotamia (North -East region of Iran)
Invasion of the White Huns or Hephthalites that shook the great empires of Iran and India in the 5th and 6th S.
End of United Hephtalite.
6th – 7th C.
Fulfillment of civilization Sogdian under the suzerainty of kaganate TURKISH .
Birth of MUHAMMAD
EGIRE , Muslim era : Muhammad emigrated to Medina
Death of Muhammad
Dynasty Umayyad dynasty of caliphs Arab whose capital is Damascus .
Taking Samarkand by Qutayba IBN MUSLIM , governor-general of KHORASAN . Islamization will grow very slowly, over several decades among the Sogdians . The Zoroastrian, Manichaean and Christian communities remain important until the 10th S.
750 – 1258
Abbasid dynasty, whose capital is BAGHDAD . Governor ABU MUSLIM . Arabic became the administrative language , scientific and artistic, the remaining Persian Letters. Manufacture of high-quality paper ( secret given by the Chinese ), which provides support for illuminated manuscripts .
Due to the weakening of the Abbasid EMPIRE , in which are opposed Arabs and Iranians (the latter aspiring to regain political autonomy) takes the DYNASTY TAHIRIDE government KHORASAN and TAHIR is the governor.
861 – 1003
DYNASTY Saffarids ( Persians ) whose capital was Zaranj (now in Afghanistan ) .
DYNASTY SAMANIDES : Persian renaissance, cultural development. Samarkand continues to be the capital, but remains a major center of culture. Potters produce white ceramic brown decor of great beauty.
999 – 1219
Karahan , Turquoise first Muslim dynasty. Under the influence of Iran began to appear the first turquoise glasures on terracotta, ceramic announcing the Timurid will culminate in TIMUR (Tamerlan ) and give Samarkand its iconic color. This dynasty will be supplanted by the Seljuk Dynasty , THE KARA – KITAI and KHOREZMCHANS .
The MONGOLIAN hurricane with Chingiz Khan ( Genghis Khan) : Samarkand is fired and blood. The rich city is destroyed . The site of the ancient Samarkand is definitely abandoned. The city reborn over south.
Death of Genghis Khan.
1370 – 1502
1370 – 1405
new Golden Age to Samarkand with the advent of TIMUR (Tamerlane ) . He claims the heir and successor of Genghis Khan. He established a vast and ephemeral Turkish Empire , based on terror (for conquest ) and knowledge (for which he introduced many scholars to his court ) . He conquered the KHOREZM , IRAN and AFGHANISTAN . He defeated the Golden Horde , the Delhi Sultanate and OTTOMAN . He made Samarkand a great intellectual and artistic center and became the capital of the Empire , with the building of monuments that will go down in the history of the architecture of the world.
1405 – 1447
Shahrukh , son Timur , reigned over the TRANSOXIAN and EASTERN PERSIA . HERAT is a brilliant capital , home of the Timurid culture.
1409 – 1449
ULUG – BEG , grand-son of TIMUR prince astronomer Golden Age of Samarkand , the capital of the Islamic World Science
1452 – 1469
Reign of the Timurid ABU – SAID
DYNASTY CHEIBANIDES ( Gengiskhanides ) . They occupy Sogdiana and end the Timurid Dynasty in 1506.
EMPIRE OF Safavid Iran , ruled by Shah Ismail
Mughal Empire in India, Babur driven from Samarkand , to share KABUL
Nadir Shah , a native of KHORASAN , reverses ASTRAKHANIDES
Establishment of khanates (Courts ) of Bukhara , Khiva , Kokand .
Russians penetrate Turkestan.
1920 – 1924
The khanates are integrated into the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST and SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN is created by Joseph Stalin.
August 31, 1991
Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan
OTHER IMPORTANT DATES :
13th to 14th S.
Set of related peoples living in Mongolia, China and Russia. They are the heirs of the great nomadic confederation which dominated the Asia High during the first millennium.
Genghis Khan unites the various nomadic tribes, extending his conquests and is the largest empire that ever existed :
– CHINA NORTH
– Khorezm and Transoxiana
– The KHORAZAN and AFGHANISTAN
– RUSSIA and HUNGARY
– Submission of IRAN , IRAQ , SYRIA , CHINA SOUTH .
He stops at the gates of the present city of VIENNA Austria.
14th to 16th S.
Collapse of the Empire. The Mongols are found under Manchu domination (founder of the Qing Dynasty ) until the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911.
16th to 17th S.
Muslim dynasty of Turkish origin , founded by Babur . She counted two Emperors : Akbar and Aurangzeb
Empire stretches from southern Kashmir over Punjab, Oudh , and northern Rajasthan.
there remains only the southern tip of India which is not under the Mughal rule .
Islamic architectural style: peak during the reign of Shah Jahan from 1628 to 1657, with white marble buildings TAJ MAHAL AGRA FORT and red sandstone DELHI .
fits into that whole Afghanistan , the entire Kashmir , of Oudh , Rajastan and Bengal .
VOCABULARY OF ARCHITECTURE:
ornament embossed or engraved , oval , elongated , and employee number (also called ” pinstripe “)
Madrasa Madrasa or
college, university, depending on the Muslim religious authority
religious building of Islam
vaulted hall square of Iranian origin , wide open by a broken front , or on the court some mosques arc.
cradle vaulted room , enclosed on three sides and opening to the outside on the fourth side.
in the mosque niche in the wall towards Mecca
pulpit in the mosque