Authentik Travel » IMPORTANT DATES
30
May

IMPORTANT DATES

Written by admin. Posted in Le Pays

Sogdiana or former Central Asian countries

Some dates to locate important periods of the region:

8th c. BC

Foundation of Samarkand

 

6th c. BC

Achaemenid EMPIRE – Persian Dynasty founded by :

– Cyrus II the great: 556-530 BC.

– DARIUS I: 522-486 BC.

356-323 BC

.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT releases the Greek cities of Asia Minor from the yoke Achaemenids. He called Samarkand “Marakanda”, settled in the city in 328. It definitely leaves Sogdiana in 327 and leaves a Greek influence to the 7th S.

 

321-64 BC.

Seleucid Empire – Hellenistic Dynasty. Founder, Seleucus 1st (312-305 BC.). The Empire born of Alexander’s conquests, extending from the Indus to the Mediterranean. He finally reduced to Syria, annexed to Rome by Pompey in 64 BC

 

250 BC
.

Exploding the Seleucid Empire

 

164 BC.

Appearance of YUE TCHE Central Asia

 

1st to 3rd BC.

Kushan Empire: Art of Gandhara (province of Ancient India, currently District Peshawar, Pakistan)

 

224-651

Sassanid Empire: Khorasan Mesopotamia (North -East region of Iran)

450

Invasion of the White Huns or Hephthalites that shook the great empires of Iran and India in the 5th and 6th S.

 

653

End of United Hephtalite.

 

6th – 7th C.

Fulfillment of civilization Sogdian under the suzerainty of kaganate TURKISH .

 

570

Birth of MUHAMMAD

 

622

EGIRE , Muslim era : Muhammad emigrated to Medina

 

632

Death of Muhammad

 

660-750

Dynasty Umayyad dynasty of caliphs Arab whose capital is Damascus .

 

712

Taking Samarkand by Qutayba IBN MUSLIM , governor-general of KHORASAN . Islamization will grow very slowly, over several decades among the Sogdians . The Zoroastrian, Manichaean and Christian communities remain important until the 10th S.

 

750 – 1258

Abbasid dynasty, whose capital is BAGHDAD . Governor ABU MUSLIM . Arabic became the administrative language , scientific and artistic, the remaining Persian Letters. Manufacture of high-quality paper ( secret given by the Chinese ), which provides support for illuminated manuscripts .

 

820-872

Due to the weakening of the Abbasid EMPIRE , in which are opposed Arabs and Iranians (the latter aspiring to regain political autonomy) takes the DYNASTY TAHIRIDE government KHORASAN and TAHIR is the governor.

 

 

861 – 1003

DYNASTY Saffarids ( Persians ) whose capital was Zaranj (now in Afghanistan ) .

 

874-999

DYNASTY SAMANIDES : Persian renaissance, cultural development. Samarkand continues to be the capital, but remains a major center of culture. Potters produce white ceramic brown decor of great beauty.

 

999 – 1219

Karahan , Turquoise first Muslim dynasty. Under the influence of Iran began to appear the first turquoise glasures on terracotta, ceramic announcing the Timurid will culminate in TIMUR (Tamerlan ) and give Samarkand its iconic color. This dynasty will be supplanted by the Seljuk Dynasty , THE KARA – KITAI and KHOREZMCHANS .

 

1220

The MONGOLIAN hurricane with Chingiz Khan ( Genghis Khan) : Samarkand is fired and blood. The rich city is destroyed . The site of the ancient Samarkand is definitely abandoned. The city reborn over south.

 

1227

Death of Genghis Khan.

 

1370 – 1502

Timurid Dynasty

 

1370 – 1405

new Golden Age to Samarkand with the advent of TIMUR (Tamerlane ) . He claims the heir and successor of Genghis Khan. He established a vast and ephemeral Turkish Empire , based on terror (for conquest ) and knowledge (for which he introduced many scholars to his court ) . He conquered the KHOREZM , IRAN and AFGHANISTAN . He defeated the Golden Horde , the Delhi Sultanate and OTTOMAN . He made Samarkand a great intellectual and artistic center and became the capital of the Empire , with the building of monuments that will go down in the history of the architecture of the world.

 

1405 – 1447

Shahrukh , son Timur , reigned over the TRANSOXIAN and EASTERN PERSIA . HERAT is a brilliant capital , home of the Timurid culture.

 

1409 – 1449

ULUG – BEG , grand-son of TIMUR prince astronomer Golden Age of Samarkand , the capital of the Islamic World Science

 

1452 – 1469

Reign of the Timurid ABU – SAID

 

1500

DYNASTY CHEIBANIDES ( Gengiskhanides ) . They occupy Sogdiana and end the Timurid Dynasty in 1506.

 

1501

EMPIRE OF Safavid Iran , ruled by Shah Ismail

 

1526

Mughal Empire in India, Babur driven from Samarkand , to share KABUL

 

1600

DYNASTY ASTRAKHANIDES

 

1710

Nadir Shah , a native of KHORASAN , reverses ASTRAKHANIDES

 

19 S.

Establishment of khanates (Courts ) of Bukhara , Khiva , Kokand .

 

1866

Russians penetrate Turkestan.

 

1920 – 1924

The khanates are integrated into the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST and SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN is created by Joseph Stalin.

 

August 31, 1991

Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan

 

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OTHER IMPORTANT DATES :

THE MONGOLIAN

13th to 14th S.

Set of related peoples living in Mongolia, China and Russia. They are the heirs of the great nomadic confederation which dominated the Asia High during the first millennium.

 

1206

Genghis Khan unites the various nomadic tribes, extending his conquests and is the largest empire that ever existed :

– CHINA NORTH

– Khorezm and Transoxiana

– The KHORAZAN and AFGHANISTAN

– RUSSIA and HUNGARY

– Submission of IRAN , IRAQ , SYRIA , CHINA SOUTH .

He stops at the gates of the present city of VIENNA Austria.

14th to 16th S.

Collapse of the Empire. The Mongols are found under Manchu domination (founder of the Qing Dynasty ) until the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911.

 

_______________________________________________

MUGHLA EMPIRE

16th to 17th S.

Muslim dynasty of Turkish origin , founded by Babur . She counted two Emperors : Akbar and Aurangzeb

 

in 1561

Empire stretches from southern Kashmir over Punjab, Oudh , and northern Rajasthan.

 

 

in 1687

there remains only the southern tip of India which is not under the Mughal rule .

Islamic architectural style: peak during the reign of Shah Jahan from 1628 to 1657, with white marble buildings TAJ MAHAL AGRA FORT and red sandstone DELHI .

in 1707

fits into that whole Afghanistan , the entire Kashmir , of Oudh , Rajastan and Bengal .

____________________________________________

VOCABULARY OF ARCHITECTURE:

fluted dome

ornament embossed or engraved , oval , elongated , and employee number (also called ” pinstripe “)

 

Madrasa Madrasa or

college, university, depending on the Muslim religious authority

 

mosque

religious building of Islam

 

Iwan

vaulted hall square of Iranian origin , wide open by a broken front , or on the court some mosques arc.

 

Aivan

cradle vaulted room , enclosed on three sides and opening to the outside on the fourth side.

 

mihrab

in the mosque niche in the wall towards Mecca

 

mimbar

pulpit in the mosque

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